Root canals and apexogenesis are important concepts in pediatric dentistry. A root canal is a procedure performed when a child’s tooth has extensive decay or infection that has reached the pulp (innermost part) of the tooth. The infected pulp is removed, the space is cleaned, disinfected, and then filled to seal the tooth, preventing further infection. Apexogenesis, on the other hand, is a specialized treatment that focuses on preserving the vitality of a young permanent tooth with an incompletely formed root. Instead of a full root canal, the infected pulp is only partially removed, allowing the remaining healthy pulp to continue root development. Apexogenesis encourages the tooth’s natural growth, with the body’s help, and can potentially lead to stronger roots. Both these procedures are geared towards saving natural teeth and promoting long-term oral health in children.